Threeskull (or 3Skull) facilitates the capture of three-dimensional landmark coordinates using a Microscribe digitizer.


ADBOU uses transition analysis to provide age estimates from skeletal indicators with explicit probabilities.

Many thanks to George Milner, Jesper Boldsen, and Roar Hylleberg for making the code available to me, which I modified.


Fordisc is a computer program that uses statistical methods to estimate sex, ancestry, and stature from skeletal measurements.

Fordisc employs multivariate statistical classification methods including linear discriminant function analysis.

Nikita's Osteoarchaeology Files

Efthymia Nikita wrote a fantastic and very well illustrated book, Osteoarchaeology, about the methods of forensic anthropology and bioarchaeology. She assembled numerous files, spreadsheets, and other software so students can perform their own analyses using modern analytical and statistical methods. I never had the opportunity to use it in a class, but I wish I had been able to.

As Nikita wrote in the forward,

"To facilitate the use of the methods described in this book, a series of macros is provided in the companion website of this book, available on http://[no longer valid]. The most important of these may be used for (1) the calculation of the number of individuals in commingled assemblages; (2) the pretreatment of cranial landmarks and nonmetric traits for the calculation of biodistances; (3) the actual calculation of biodistances based on continuous, ordinal, and binary data; (4) the estimation of sex, age, stature, and body mass; (5) the generation of artificial data sets; and (6) statistical analysis." (Nikita 2017:x)

Unfortunately, the book's files were misplaced during an update to the publisher's web site. I have received the files from Efthymia and permission from the publisher to host the files (here).


Nikita, E. (2017) Osteoarchaeology. A Guide to the Macroscopic Study of Human Skeletal Remains. Amsterdam : Elsevier/Academic Press.
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128040218
eBook ISBN: 9780128040973

More information on the book is available here:

Elsevier Press
Science Direct


Osteoware facilitates the entry of extensive skeletal data into a database.

You can find information on Osteoware and download it here.

Programs and Spreadsheets for Forensic Anthropology

Programs and spreadsheets to estimate ancestry or sex based on recent publications.

Transition Analysis 3 (TA3)

Beta version 0.8.4 is now available for hard drive or USB installation.

IMPORTANT: Both versions include a corrected data set (version 1.13).

NOTE: You will need to uninstall version 0.7.0 first. Updating through the program will work for the next version.

TA3 documentation and download links are here.

Last modified UTC: July 18 2022 16:41

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