The latest distribution of 3skull includes only the Lndmark13F landmarks file. It is a superset of the two previous files and includes 111 total landmarks. The abbreviations have not changed.

The landmarks in each file are below.

LNDMark11HMP
LNDMARK12M
LNDMARK13F


Sheet 1: LNDMark11HMP

INDEX LANDMARK LMABBREV USED_FOR LOCATION
1 prosthion-Howells prosH BPL, NPH MS
2 prosthion-Martin prosM UFHT MS
3 subspinale ssp SSR, SSS MS
4 alare L alarl NLB L
5 most inferior nasal border L nlhil NLH L
6 most inferior nasal border R nlhir NLH R
7 alare R alarr NLB R
8 zygoorbitale L zygool MOW, IML, XML L
10 nasale inferius L nasil future L
11 nasale inferius R nasir future R
13 zygoorbitale R zygoor MOW R
14 lower orbital border L/R obhi OBH L/R
15 upper orbital border L/R obhs OBH L/R
16 cheek height sup point L/R wmhs WMH L/R
17 cheek height inf point L/R wmhi WMH L/R
18 ectoconchion L ectl OBB, EKB L
19 dacryon L dacl OBB, DKB L
20 nasale superius L nassl NEW L
21 nasomaxillary suture pinch L wnbl WNB Simotic chord L
22 nasomaxillary suture pinch R wnbr WNB Simotic chord R
23 nasale superius R nassr NEW R
24 dacryon R dacr DKB R
25 ectoconchion R ectr EKB R
26 zygion R zygr ZYB R
27 zygotemporale inferior R zytir IML,XML R
28 zygotemporale superior R zytsr IML,XML R
29 zygomaxilare R zygomr ZMB R
30 zygomaxilare L zygoml ZMB, IML L
31 zygotemporale superior L zytsl NEW L/R
32 zygotemporale inferior L zytil IML, XML L/R
33 zygion L zygl ZYB L
34 jugale L jugl JUB L
35 marginal process lateral L mpll future L
36 frontomalare temporale L fmtl UFBR L
37 frontomalare anterior L fmal FMB, NAS L
38 frontotemporale L wfbl WFB L
39 sphenofrontale L jnzl NEW (spheno-fronto-zygomatic) L
40 Sphenion L sphl future L
41 Krotaphion L krol future L
42 Maximum frontal point L xfbl XFB L
43 stephanion L stpl STB, STS L
44 stephanion R stpr STB, STS R
45 Maximum frontal point R xfbr XFB R
46 krotaphion R kror future R
47 sphenion R sphr future R
48 sphenofrontale R jnzr NEW (spheno-fronto-zygomatic) R
49 frontotemporale R wfbr WFB R
50 frontomalare anterior R fmar FMB, NAS R
51 frontomalare temporale R fmtr UFBR R
52 marginal process lateral R mplr future R
53 jugale R jugr JUB R
54 nasion nas NOL, NLH, NAS, etc. MS
55 glabella glb GOL MS
56 supraglabellare spglb GLS MS
57 bregma brg FRC, BBH, PAC, PAF, PAS, etc. MS
58 lambda lam PAC, PAF, PAS MS
59 asterion L astl ASB MS
60 eurion L eurl XCB R
61 radiometer point L radptl radii, in the middle of the EAM L
62 porion L porl MDH L
63 mastoideale L mastl MDH L
64 radiculare L (zyg root) aubl AUB L
65 radiculare R (zyg root) aubr AUB R
66 radiometer point R radptr radii, in the middle of the EAM R
67 porion R porr MDH R
68 mastoideale R mastr MDH R
69 eurion R eurr XCB MS
70 asterion R astr ASB L
71 opisthion ops FOL MS
72 basion bas BBH,BNL, etc. between hypo- and endobasion. MS
73 FOB point R fobr FOB R
74 FOB point L fobl FOB L
75 hormion hor
MS
76 alveolon (rubber band) alv MAL MS
77 Staurion staur
MS
78 ectomolare L ecml MAB L
79 M1 anterior point L avrpt AVR L
80 ectomolare R ecmr MAB R
81 pogonion (Mand Length ant point) malapt XRL, MAN MS
82 gnathion gniipt GNI MS
83 infradentale gnispt GNI MS
84 HMF inf pt hmfipt HMF L
85 HMF sup pt hmfspt HMF L
86 TMF buccal pt tmfbpt TMF L
87 TMF lingual pt tmflpt TMF L
88 gonion L gonl GOG L
89 L angle base manlipt MAN L
90 coronion L coronl
L
91 condylion laterale L latcndl bicondylar breadth L
92 sup condyle L supcndlS
L
93 L sup condyle post supcndlP CDL, MAN L
94 condylion mediale L medcndl
L
95 condylion mediale R medcndr
R
96 sup condyle R supcndrS
R
97 R sup condyle post supcndrP CDL, MAN R
98 condylion laterale R latcndr bicondylar breadth R
99 coronion R coronr
R
100 R angle base manript MAN R
101 gonion R gonr GOG R
102 WRB posterior pt wrbppt WRB L/R
103 WRB anterior pt wrbapt WRB L/R
104 nasal bone elevation sispt SIS Simotic subtense, SIA MS
105 deepest point on nasal bone profile ndspt NDS, NDA MS
106 maximum malar projection point L/R mlspt MLS L/R
107 metopion met FRF, FRS MS
108 parietal subtense point paspt PAF, PAS MS
109 vertex radius pt vrrpt VRR MS
110 opisthocranion (GOL) opg GOL MS
111 occiptal subtense point ocspt OCF, OCS MS

Sheet 2: LNDMARK12M

INDEX LANDMARK LMABBREV USED_FOR LOCATION
1 prosthion-Howells prosH BPL, NPH MS
2 prosthion-Martin prosM UFHT MS
3 subspinale ssp SSR, SSS MS
4 alare L alarl NLB L
5 most inferior nasal border L nlhil NLH L
6 most inferior nasal border R nlhir NLH R
7 alare R alarr NLB R
8 zygoorbitale L zygool MOW, IML, XML L
9 nasale inferius L nasil
L
10 nasale inferius R nasir
R
11 zygoorbitale R zygoor MOW R
12 lower orbital border L/R obhi orbital height (inferior point) L/R
13 upper orbital border L/R obhs orbital height (superior point) L/R
14 cheek height sup point L/R wmhs WMH L/R
15 cheek height inf point L/R wmhi WMH L/R
16 ectoconchion L ectl OBB, EKB L
17 dacryon L dacl OBB, DKB L
18 nasale superius L nassl
L
19 nasomaxillary suture pinch L wnbl WNB Simotic chord L
20 nasomaxillary suture pinch R wnbr WNB Simotic chord R
21 nasale superius R nassr
R
22 dacryon R dacr DKB R
23 ectoconchion R ectr EKB R
24 zygion R zygr ZYB R
25 zygotemporale inferior R zytir IML,XML R
26 zygotemporale superior R zytsr IML,XML R
27 zygomaxilare R zygomr ZMB R
28 zygomaxilare L zygoml ZMB, IML L
29 zygotemporale superior L zytsl NEW L/R
30 zygotemporale inferior L zytil IML, XML L/R
31 zygion L zygl ZYB L
32 jugale L jugl JUB L
33 marginal process lateral L mpll
L
34 frontomalare temporale L fmtl UFBR L
35 frontomalare anterior L fmal FMB, NAS L
36 frontotemporale L wfbl WFB L
37 Sphenion L sphl
L
38 Krotaphion L krol
L
39 Maximum frontal point L xfbl XFB L
40 stephanion L stpl STB, STS L
41 stephanion R stpr STB, STS R
42 Maximum frontal point R xfbr XFB R
43 krotaphion R kror
R
44 sphenion R sphr
R
45 frontotemporale R wfbr WFB R
46 frontomalare anterior R fmar FMB, NAS R
47 frontomalare temporale R fmtr UFBR R
48 marginal process lateral R mplr
R
49 jugale R jugr JUB R
50 nasion nas NOL, NLH, NAS, etc. MS
51 glabella glb GOL MS
52 supraglabellare spglb GLS MS
53 bregma brg FRC, BBH, PAC, PAF, PAS, etc. MS
54 lambda lam PAC, PAF, PAS MS
55 asterion L astl ASB MS
56 eurion L eurl XCB R
57 radiometer point L radptl radii, in the middle of the EAM L
58 porion L porl MDH L
59 mastoideale L mastl MDH L
60 radiculare L (zyg root) aubl AUB L
61 radiculare R (zyg root) aubr AUB R
62 radiometer point R radptr radii, in the middle of the EAM R
63 porion R porr MDH R
64 mastoideale R mastr MDH R
65 eurion R eurr XCB MS
66 asterion R astr ASB L
67 opisthion ops FOL MS
68 basion bas BBH,BNL, etc. between hypo- and endobasion. MS
69 FOB point R fobr FOB R
70 FOB point L fobl FOB L
71 hormion hor
MS
72 alveolon (rubber band) alv MAL MS
73 Staurion staur
MS
74 ectomolare L ecml MAB L
75 M1 anterior point L avrpt AVR L
76 ectomolare R ecmr MAB R
77 pogonion (Mand Length ant point) malapt XRL, MAN MS
78 gnathion gniipt GNI MS
79 infradentale gnispt GNI MS
80 HMF inf pt hmfipt HMF L
81 HMF sup pt hmfspt HMF L
82 TMF buccal pt tmfbpt TMF L
83 TMF lingual pt tmflpt TMF L
84 gonion L gonl GOG L
85 L angle base manlipt MAN L
86 coronion L coronl
L
87 Inferior mandibular notch point imnptl Lowest point between cornonion and condyle L
88 condylion laterale L latcndl bicondylar breadth L
89 sup condyle L supcndlS
L
90 L sup condyle post supcndlP CDL, MAN L
91 condylion mediale L medcndl
L
92 condylion mediale R medcndr
R
93 sup condyle R supcndrS
R
94 R sup condyle post supcndrP CDL, MAN R
95 condylion laterale R latcndr bicondylar breadth R
96 Inferior mandibular notch point imnptr Lowest point between condyle and coronion R
97 coronion R coronr
R
98 R angle base manript MAN R
99 gonion R gonr GOG R
100 WRB posterior pt wrbppt WRB L/R
101 WRB anterior pt wrbapt WRB L/R
102 nasal bone elevation sispt SIS Simotic subtense, SIA MS
103 deepest point on nasal bone profile ndspt NDS, NDA MS
104 maximum malar projection point L/R mlspt MLS L/R
105 metopion met FRF, FRS MS
106 parietal subtense point paspt PAF, PAS MS
107 vertex radius pt vrrpt VRR MS
108 opisthocranion (GOL) opg GOL MS
109 occiptal subtense point ocspt OCF, OCS MS

Sheet 3: LNDMARK13F

INDEX LANDMARK LMABBREV USED_FOR LOCATION
1 Prosthion-Howells prosH BPL, NPH, most anterior pt MS
2 Prosthion-Martin prosM UFHT, most anterior pt MS
3 Subspinale ssp SSR, SSS MS
4 Alare L alarl NLB L
5 Most inferior nasal border L nlhil NLH L
6 Most inferior nasal border R nlhir NLH R
7 Alare R alarr NLB R
8 Zygoorbitale L zygool IML, MOW, XML L
9 Nasale inferius L nasil
L
10 Nasale inferius R nasir
R
11 Zygoorbitale R zygoor MOW R
12 Orbit height inferior pt obhi OBH L/R
13 Orbit height superior pt obhs OBH L/R
14 Cheek height superior pt wmhs WMH L/R
15 Cheek height inferior pt wmhi WMH L/R
16 Ectoconchion L ectl EKB, OBB L
17 Dacryon L dacl DKB, OBB L
18 Nasale superius L nassl
L
19 Nasomaxillary suture pinch L wnbl WNB, most medial pt L
20 Nasomaxillary suture pinch R wnbr WNB, most medial pt R
21 Nasale superius R nassr
R
22 Dacryon R dacr DKB R
23 Ectoconchion R ectr EKB R
24 Zygion R zygr ZYB R
25 Zygotemporale inferior R zytir
R
26 Zygotemporale superior R zytsr
R
27 Zygomaxilare R zygomr ZMB R
28 Zygomaxilare L zygoml ZMB, IML L
29 Zygotemporale superior L zytsl
L/R
30 Zygotemporale inferior L zytil IML, XML L/R
31 Zygion L zygl ZYB L
32 Jugale L jugl JUB L
33 Marginal process Lateral L mpll
L
34 Frontomalare temporale L fmtl UFBR L
35 Frontomalare anterior L fmal FMB, NAS L
36 Frontotemporale L wfbl WFB L
37 Sphenofrontale L jnzl Spheno-fronto-zygomatic L
38 Sphenion L sphl
L
39 Krotaphion L krol
L
40 Maximum frontal pt L xfbl XFB L
41 Stephanion L stpl STB, STS L
42 Stephanion R stpr STB, STS R
43 Maximum frontal pt R xfbr XFB R
44 Krotaphion R kror
R
45 Sphenion R sphr
R
46 Sphenofrontale R jnzr Spheno-fronto-zygomatic R
47 Frontotemporale R wfbr WFB R
48 Frontomalare anterior R fmar FMB, NAS R
49 Frontomalare temporale R fmtr UFBR R
50 Marginal process Lateral R mplr
R
51 Jugale R jugr JUB R
52 Nasion nas BNL, FRC, GLS, NOL, NLH MS
53 Glabella glb GLS, GOL MS
54 Supraglabellare spglb GLS MS
55 Bregma brg BBH, FRC, PAC MS
56 Lambda lam OCC, PAC MS
57 Asterion L astl ASB MS
58 Eurion L eurl XCB R
59 Radiometer pt L radptl Radii, in middle of EAM L
60 Porion L porl MDH L
61 Mastoideale L mastl MDH L
62 Radiculare L aubl AUB, most medial zygomatic root L
63 Radiculare R aubr AUB, most medial zygomatic root R
64 Radiometer pt R radptr Radii, in middle of EAM R
65 Porion R porr MDH R
66 Mastoideale R mastr
R
67 Eurion R eurr XCB MS
68 Asterion R astr ASB L
69 Opisthion ops FOL MS
70 Basion bas BBH, BNL, BPL, opposite nasion MS
71 Fob pt R fobr FOB R
72 Fob pt L fobl FOB L
73 Hormion hor
MS
74 Alveolon alv MAL, on rubber band MS
75 Staurion staur
MS
76 Ectomolare L ecml MAB L
77 M1 anterior pt L avrpt AVR L
78 Ectomolare R ecmr MAB R
79 Pogonion malapt XRL, MAN, most anterior pt MS
80 Gnathion gniipt GNI MS
81 Infradentale gnispt GNI MS
82 HMF inferior pt hmfipt HMF L
83 HMF superior pt hmfspt HMF L
84 TMF buccal pt tmfbpt TMF L
85 TMF lingual pt tmflpt TMF L
86 Gonion L gonl GOG L
87 Mandibular angle base L manlipt MAN L
88 Coronion L coronl
L
89 Inferior mandibular notch pt L imnptl
L
90 Condylion laterale L latcndl CDL L
91 Superior condyle L supcndlS
L
92 Posterior superior condyle L supcndlP XRH, MAN, projected L
93 Condylion mediale L medcndl
L
94 Condylion mediale R medcndr
R
95 Superior condyle R supcndrS
R
96 Posterior Superior condyle R supcndrP XRH, MAN, projected R
97 Condylion laterale R latcndr CDL R
98 Inferior mandibular notch pt R imnptr
R
99 Coronion R coronr
R
100 Mandibular angle base R manript MAN R
101 Gonion R gonr GOG R
102 WRB posterior pt wrbppt WRB L/R
103 WRB anterior pt wrbapt WRB L/R
104 Nasal bone elevation sispt SIA, SIS (calculated) MS
105 Deepest pt on nasal bone profile ndspt NDS, NDA (calculated) MS
106 Maximum malar projection pt mlspt MLS (calculated) L/R
107 Metopion met FRF, FRS (calculated) MS
108 Parietal subtense pt paspt PAF, PAS (calculated) MS
109 Vertex Radius pt vrrpt VRR (calculated) MS
110 Opisthocranion opg GOL (calculated) MS
111 Occiptal subtense pt ocspt OCF, OCS (calculated) MS